Three ways I could think of that housing influences educational opportunities and outcomes are:
1) Housing conditions, meaning the conditions and environment that students and their families live in. Such conditions can affect a child's readiness to learn.
- Is the dwelling and surrounding neighborhood safe?
- Is the housing well-maintained?
- Is there running, potable water?
- Is there adequate heating/cooling? Is the heating and cooling affordable?
- Is there a lot of noise? Is there a quiet place to study or read?
- Is the housing in an area of concentrated poverty? Is the child in an environment causing toxic stress for them and/or for a disproportionate number of their neighbors?
- What is the air quality in the neighborhood?
- Is there access to supermarkets and healthy food?
- Are there adequate public transportation options?
- Is there access to adequate health care?
2) The strength and existence, even, of a neighborhood school. Studies show that most parents prefer to send their children to schools in their neighborhood. It's more convenient but also serves as a positive community and support systems builder. Of course, this practice can conflict with making schools diverse and providing equality of access, which bring me to point 3.
3) Housing and zoning policies. Economic integration of housing and neighborhoods is an over-looked yet proven tool for school reform (N.B.: I am by no means saying it's the only one).
- According to the (must-read!) book The Color of Their Skin about the Richmond Public Schools desegregation process (the book also covers other districts in Virginia), school desegregation only occurred in any substance for a few years before the schools in Richmond proper and the surrounding areas re-segregated. Busing was a temporary and heavily protested solution. Housing policies needed to change but did not. In fact, zoning policies became more discriminatory, serving as de facto segregation laws.
- According to a study reported in 2010 by The Century Foundation, low-income students in Montgomery County, Maryland, who go to high-performing public schools in more affluent districts do better academically than their peers who live in lower-income districts attending schools with majority low-income populations, even if those schools are given more resources.
- Schools in Wake County, North Carolina, have a smaller achievement gap because of integration--magnet programs were located in low-income neighborhoods.
- Furthermore, a study by the Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program released last week showed that metropolitan areas' housing policies keep low-income students from attending high-performing schools. Restrictive or exclusionary policies that prohibit the development of apartment buildings and smaller houses on smaller parcels cause economic segregation.
- In high-performing, mixed-SES schools, all kids benefit from: lower rates of teacher and principal turnover; parents with more time and resources to give to the school; parents who feel more empowered to advocate for rich, meaningful, and vital educational opportunities; fewer families who are under significant stress; and being part of a diverse, pluralistic learning community.
- Additional links:
- Study of Montgomery County schools shows benefits of economic integration http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/14/AR2010101407577.html
Interactive: Housing Costs, Zoning and School Access:http://www.brookings.edu/info/schools/school_access_interactive.aspx
The New Brookings Report on Economic Segregationhttp://botc.tcf.org/2012/04/the-new-brookings-report-on-economic-segregation.html
Could new zoning laws help educate poor kids?http://www.marketplace.org/topics/wealth-poverty/could-new-zoning-laws-help-educate-poor-kids#.T5HZd4q-2-0.twitter
Study Links Zoning to Education Disparitieshttp://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/04/19/29zoning.h31.html?cmp=SOC-SHR-TW
Education For Poor Students Threatened By Exclusionary Housing Policies, Report Sayshttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/19/education-for-poor_n_1435876.html?ref=tw